Key international human rights declarations signed under the United Nations (UN) include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Africa has a well developed body of rights, including the African Charter on Human and People's Rights (entered into force 1986), the subsequent Protocol to the Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa (2003) and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990).
In 2003, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee adopted a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), a key treaty mandated to harmonize political and economic governance standards across Africa, and currently signed by 29 countries. This has been supported by subsequent African commitments on political governance including the NEPAD Declaration on Democracy, Economic, Political and Corporate Governance (2005) and the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance (2007).
Key international mechanisms to tackle corruption include the UN Convention Against Corruption and the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (1997). These have been developed further in Africa with the AU Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and the NEPAD Declaration on Democracy, Economic, Political and Corporate Governance. Additional voluntary mechanisms to promote transparency also exist, such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative(EITI) and the OECD guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Development partners such as the G8 and European Union have made successive commitments to uphold and promote these international and African commitments and initiatives.
In response to the global financial crisis, the G20 emerged as the leading global forum, taking steps to strengthen financial regulation and the role of the IFIs at both the London and Pittsburgh Summits.