G8 L'Aquila Responsible Leadership for a Sustainable Future: Statement

Sectors : Transparency and accountability, Institutional development, Remittances, Tax regulation and illicit financing, Sustainable development, Quality of aid, Aid volume, Debt relief, Financial Institutions, markets, services and microfinance, International partnerships and support for Pan-African institutions, Peace-building and peacekeeping, Humanitarian assistance, Economic governance, corruption and crime, Environmental degradation and natural resource management, Investment, Disaster risk reduction and reconstruction, Water and Sanitation, Energy, Mitigation and low carbon growth, Energy, climate change and technology, Climate change technology and research, International trade: market access, subsidies and aid for trade, Agricultural investment and production, Agriculture trade, Food security, Science, research and technology general, Adaptation, Climate change financing, Gender and economic opportunity, Regional cooperation and integration, General health and health funding, Gender and social development, Health and technology, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Maternal health, reproductive health and infant mortality, Other Preventable Diseases, Polio, TB, Education capacity
Organisation : G8
Date made: 
2009
Level: 
Heads Of State

Commitments in: Governance - Transparency and accountability

“We, the Leaders of the Group of Eight meeting in L’Aquila...

...98. To improve transparency and effectiveness we decide to strengthen our accountability with respect to G8 individual and collective commitments with regard to development and development-related goals. We have asked our experts to provide a preliminary report, attached as an annex, reviewing our achievements up to now. Furthermore, we have tasked a senior level working group to devise, in cooperation with relevant international  organizations, a broader, comprehensive and consistent methodology for reporting with a focus on our activities in development and development-related areas and with attention to results. A report will be delivered in 2010 at the Muskoka Summit in Canada. We also ask for an international assessment, in 2010, on what is needed in order to achieve the MDGs.”

Scope: 
International

“131...

a) ...we support further initiatives to narrow the digital gap to underpin institution-building, the modernization of public services and the strengthening of legislative and democratic processes.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Migration - Remittances

“134. Given the development impact of remittance flows, we will facilitate a more efficient transfer and improved use of remittances and enhance cooperation between national and international organizations, in order to implement the recommendations of the 2007 Berlin G8 Conference and of the Global Remittances Working Group established in 2009 and coordinated by the World Bank. We will aim to make financial services more accessible to migrants and to those who receive remittances in the developing world. We will work to achieve in particular the objective of a reduction of the global average costs of transferring remittances from the present 10% to 5% in 5 years through enhanced information, transparency, competition and cooperation with partners, generating a significant net increase in income for migrants and their families in the developing world.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Governance - Tax regulation and illicit financing

“16. ...We are making progress in promoting tax information exchange and transparency across the globe, which is helping to widen the acceptance of internationally agreed standards on the exchange of tax information and increase the number of bilateral agreements signed by several jurisdictions.”

17. Echoing the call of the G-20, an appropriate follow up framework is needed to fully benefit from this renewed emphasis on tax information exchange and transparency...

c. participation to the Global Forum should be expanded;

d. recognising the particularly damaging effects of tax evasion for developing countries, concrete progress needs to be made towards enabling developing countries to benefit from the new co-operative tax environment, including through enhanced participation in the Global Forum and the consideration of a multilateral approach for exchange of information;” 

Scope: 
International

“107. We will continue to support partner countries’ efforts to increase domestic revenues through modernized tax and customs regulations, improved revenue collection capacities and effective fight against tax evasion, illegal financial flows and corruption. We will enhance cooperation on financial transparency and tax information exchange.”

Scope: 
International

“131...

...b) ... We will also support capacity building for improved financial and legal systems, to provide for the necessary tax reforms and for better international cooperation in the fight against tax evasion...”
 

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Financing for Development - Quality of aid

“109. Building on this “whole of country” approach, we will explore the feasibility and the relevance of a new assessment tool designed to fully comprehend the various contributions to the sustainable development of partner countries...”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Financing for Development - Aid volume

“100. We reconfirm our resolve to implement the Monterrey Consensus and the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development. In particular, despite the severe impact of the crisis on our economies, we reiterate the importance of fulfilling our commitments to increase aid made at Gleneagles, and reaffirmed at Heiligendamm and Toyako. For Africa, this will include increasing, together with other donors ODA by US$ 25 billion a year by 2010, compared to 2004. The OECD-DAC estimated that the combined commitments of G8 and other donors would increase overall ODA by around $50 billion a year by 2010 compared to 2004. We will continue to provide debt relief according to the Enhanced HIPC initiative, the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative and the Paris Club’s Evian Approach.

101. At the London Summit we have agreed a substantial increase of resources available through the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) for crisis support and sustaining growth. As G8 we remain firmly committed to the London decisions and their thorough and timely implementation...

102. The financial crisis makes it doubly important that we improve the effectiveness of our aid. We are firmly committed to implement the Paris Declaration and the Accra Agenda for Action (AAA), to ensure development effectiveness. Building on the results of the 2008 OECD Survey, we will accelerate implementation of our aid effectiveness commitments, with a strong focus on in-country implementation, to be reviewed at the 2011 Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness. We stand ready to work with partner countries, non-DAC donors and providers of South-South cooperation to improve development results.” 

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Development partnerships - International partnerships and support for Pan-African institutions

“26. We are fulfilling the commitments to provide resources to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and for trade finance...We remain committed to reforming the IMF to enable it to carry out its critical role in the modern global economy. We support the completion of the IMF quota review by January 2011 and the agreement on the second phase of voice and representation reform in the World Bank Group by the 2010 Spring Meetings...”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Peace and security - Peace-building and peacekeeping

“We, the Leaders of the Group of Eight meeting in L’Aquila...

...129. Peace and security are prerequisites for sustainable development. Post-conflict developing countries face particular challenges in reaching the MDGs and need special assistance. We have assessed progress in the implementation of our existing commitments to strengthen peacekeeping and peace-building capacity in Africa. We will reinforce G8 programs, taking action to:  

a) enhance coordination for peace support operations, recognizing the leading role of the UN, and in particular the UN Security Council. We will increase efforts to: coordinate material and logistical assistance, training, and planning activities; assess with partner countries the causes of conflict to produce clear and achievable mandates for peace operations and improve peace-building efforts; integrate civilian, police and military components. We will strengthen the role of the Africa Clearing House by examining with the AU how a dedicated website and database on peace and security activities might be established with G8 support to provide for continuous information exchange and ensure better coordination, coherence and synergy amongst our initiatives. We task our experts to elaborate further specific proposals by the next Summit.” 

Scope: 
Africa

“129...We will reinforce G8 programs, taking action to:...

...b) provide assistance, including financial, for African-led peace support operations, and work towards flexible and predictable funding. We commit to help strengthen the African Union and Regional Economic Communities’ peacekeeping capabilities, including by assisting in the full operationalisation of the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) including the African Standby Force (ASF).”

Scope: 
Africa

“129...We will reinforce G8 programs, taking action to:...

...c) improve capacity building efforts and rapid deployment of capabilities, focusing on: civilian and police expertise, including justice mediation and reconciliation; humanitarian assistance; recovery and reconstruction. We will support training of trainers activities and centres of excellence in Africa, and assist in building international networks of training centres to achieve common quality standards. In the context of the APSA we have assessed the different initiatives which have been launched together with African partners, including the training priorities for the ASF. We commit to address those priorities, including on civilian and police components, complementing ongoing donor initiatives."

Scope: 
Africa

“129...We will reinforce G8 programs, taking action to:...

...d) support maritime security capacity development in Africa. In this respect, we welcome and support the growing interest of the African Union and its member States in maritime security, which is a prerequisite for development and must be strengthened to improve Africa’s trade and investment climate.”

Scope: 
Africa

“129...We will reinforce G8 programs, taking action to:...

...e) improve aid effectiveness in conflict and fragile environments. We are strongly committed to implement the Accra Agenda for Action provisions on adapting aid policies in fragile situations. Reaffirming the OECD-DAC Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations, we emphasize the need for assistance based on the principles of coherence, coordination and complementarity, as reflected in the “3C Roadmap” adopted at the 2009 Geneva Conference...”

Scope: 
International

“129...

...f) enhance work with the UN System, International Financial Institutions and other donors, to build partnerships on peace and security...” 

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Governance - Economic governance, corruption and crime

“29. ...we are determined to strengthen action on corruption, which poses serious problems to the stability and security of societies, undermines the institutions and values of democracy and jeopardises sustainable development and economic prosperity. Reaffirming our previous commitments, we will intensify our efforts to effectively fight against corruption in all countries....

...31. International cooperation against corruption should be enhanced in order to achieve effective results. We are therefore committed to update G8 anticorruption initiatives and further support outreach activities and technical assistance to other countries.”

Scope: 
International

“131...

...c) ... We reaffirm our commitment and support for the full implementation of these initiatives that can play a key role in increasing public revenues, and reducing corruption, conflict and violence fuelled by revenues from natural resources...”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Private Sector development and financial services for the poor - Financial Institutions, markets, services and microfinance

“6. We renew all our commitments towards the poor, especially in Africa. We are determined to undertake measures to mitigate the impact of the crisis on developing countries, and to continue to support their efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.”

Scope: 
International

“8. We strongly reaffirm commitments undertaken at the London Summit to take all necessary steps to support demand, restore growth and maintain financial stability, including strengthening financial regulation and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and maintaining open markets worldwide. We will continue to implement swiftly these decisions and call on all countries to act decisively to reinforce the international economic and financial system, and to work cooperatively and responsibly with regard to the impact on other countries.”

Scope: 
International

“We, the Leaders of the Group of Eight meeting in L’Aquila...

...108. Building on the Monterrey Consensus, as reaffirmed in the Doha Conference on Financing for Development, we will promote a comprehensive, “whole of country” approach to development. We will ensure stronger synergies across all relevant policies and foster the conditions for all actors in our country system – central and local governments, private sector, philanthropy and civil society – to contribute effectively to partner countries’ development. We will work with partner countries to maximize the impact of investment, trade, debt relief and sustainable debt financing, microfinance, remittances, domestic resources of partner countries, as well as development assistance, with a view to diversifying the mix of available financial resources and gradually reducing aid-dependency... We will also explore the potential of new innovative financing mechanisms, including new forms of voluntary contributions by citizens and corporations.”

Scope: 
International

“f) enhance work with the UN System, International Financial Institutions and other donors, to build partnerships on peace and security...”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Private Sector development and financial services for the poor - Investment

“49. ...We will work to reverse the recent decline in FDI, by fostering an open, receptive climate for foreign investment, especially in emerging and in developing countries.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Water and Sanitation

“116. ...We will accordingly strengthen our efforts to support improved water management to build resilience and drive adaptation, and against desertification, support disaster risk reduction and enhance science-based information provision, data collection and analysis.

117. ... we will strengthen our support to partners on the basis of their commitments, to improve resource management, governance, and sustainable financing.

118. Together with African partners we will launch a strengthened Africa-G8 water and sanitation partnership based on mutual accountability and shared responsibility, to implement respective commitments on water and sanitation and respond to the reciprocal call for improving joint work made at the 2008 G8 and AU Summits. Within the framework of this partnership, building on successful initiatives, we will support African partners to implement their commitments to: prioritize water and sanitation within national development plans; develop resource mobilisation strategies, including national budget allocations and sustainable cost recovery policies; involve all relevant stakeholders and promote programs to strengthen the capacity of local actors and the monitoring of progress. G8 efforts will include: supporting country-level coordination processes led by national governments towards aid effectiveness; strengthening the capacity of local actors and institutions, including regional organizations such as the AU and AMCOW; reinforcing complementarities and synergies with existing multilateral and regional initiatives. We will continue working with African partners at all levels, with a view to achieve tangible progress in the advancement of the partnership by the end of 2009.” 

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Energy

“88. A comprehensive strategy to ensure sustainable development and long-term energy security must envisage a portfolio of different energy sources. In the context of diversification of the energy mix, renewable energies will play an essential role, as these meet the dual challenge of reducing emissions and lowering fossil-fuel consumption and dependence. We will:

a) improve policy and regulatory frameworks in order to boost investments in renewable energies, and promote their deployment and diffusion also in emerging and developing countries...”

Scope: 
International

“93. Noting that energy poverty remains widespread in many areas, most notably in Africa and Asia, we support the launch, together with interested countries, of the Expert-Level Working Group on Energy Poverty following the proposal made at the G8 Energy Ministers Meeting in Rome, and encourage it to submit a report before the 2010 Muskoka Summit. We are committed to take swift, resolute action, with developing country governments, international financial institutions, local communities and the private sector. Building upon previous commitments, we will:

a) promote the development of transparent national policies able to effectively use public resources and attract and stimulate private sector investments in rural electrification and the deployment of renewable energy systems and alternative cooking technologies and fuels;

b) encourage active involvement of local communities in rural electrification programmes, through the deployment of appropriate technologies and the development of skills and capabilities in cooperation with the private sector;

c) ensure that work to improve energy access contributes to put developing countries on the path to low-carbon development, by reducing high carbon lock-in, as well as supporting exploitation of new technologies, improved energy security and off-grid access in remote areas;

d) enhance capacity building initiatives, aimed at increasing energy efficiency, diffusion of renewable energies and efficient use of natural resources;

e) enhance capacity building initiatives for the sustainable development and deployment of oil, natural gas and electricity regional energy networks;

f) stimulate the mobilisation of increased financing for energy access, including through the improvement of investment conditions.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Trade - International trade: market access, subsidies and aid for trade

“45. We reconfirm our commitment to keep markets open and free and to reject protectionism of any kind.

47. ...We will continue to ensure that our share of the pledge taken in the London Summit of $250 billion of support for trade finance is promptly made available through our export credit agencies (ECAs) and investment agencies and through Multilateral Development Banks.

48. We commit to reach a rapid, ambitious, balanced and comprehensive conclusion of the Doha Development Agenda on the basis of progress already made, including with regard to modalities.” 

Scope: 
International

“133. ... Reaffirming our commitment to a swift, ambitious and balanced conclusion of the Doha Round and the importance of promoting meaningful market access, we note progress made towards achieving a collective effort on trade-related assistance of $4 billion annually by 2010. In this respect, we welcome focus on results and effectiveness of aid for trade initiatives addressing supply-side constraints, especially the least developed countries, and strengthening regional integration, and encourage our developing country partners to integrate trade into their national development strategies.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Agriculture - Food security

“113. With a view to ensuring a more food secure world, we commit to:

a) stimulate sustainable growth of world food production, by promoting increased investment in agriculture, including through development assistance, and with particular attention to small-hold farmers; promote well-functioning and transparent international, national and local markets as a means to reduce the volatility of prices and combat speculation; work with governments and regional organizations to strengthen national agricultural research systems; increase investment and access to scientific knowledge and technology, also by strengthening the role of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); encourage appropriate land and natural resource management, the protection of biodiversity and the adaptation to climate change.

b) ... we will work with partner countries and international organizations to develop a joint proposal on principles and best practices for international agricultural investment.

c) foster a more efficient and coherent international agricultural and food security architecture by: advancing the reforms of the FAO, the Committee on World Food Security and other specialized agencies and their cooperation at global, regional and country level; enhancing food aid effectiveness; continuing to explore various options on a coordinated approach to stock management; advancing trade negotiations to achieve a balanced, comprehensive and ambitious conclusion of the Doha Round.

d) support country-led and regional processes, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), to promote sustainable agriculture, the development of local markets and rural non-farm economies, as well as to strengthen early warning systems, social protection mechanisms and safety nets for vulnerable population groups.

114. We will keep supporting an integrated approach to achieve global food security, respond to emergencies and prevent future crises, building on the UN Comprehensive Framework for Action (CFA)...”

Scope: 
International

“111. ...We welcome the Final Declaration of the G8 Ministers of Agriculture who recently met in Treviso, and commit to continue working with partner countries and international and regional organizations to foster the conditions for ensuring sustainable access to sufficient, affordable and safe food to everyone...”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Disaster risk reduction and humanitarian assistance - Disaster risk reduction and reconstruction

“77. To address the increased threats of natural disasters and extreme weather phenomena caused by climate change, such as increased flooding, storm surges, droughts and forest fires, we will act to improve risk preparedness, prevention, monitoring and response times, particularly in developing countries, by:

a) defining common guidelines for disaster prevention and management to be used in developing national plans, in collaboration with the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), building on the Hyogo Framework for Action and on national experiences, as well as improving management of risks, awareness raising and training of the population and civil protection real-time response, such as logistical support for emergency situations;

b) supporting the ongoing work on the development of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Environment - Environmental degradation and natural resource management

“78. Aware that deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of annual CO2 emissions, and that forests are an essential repository of biological diversity and key to the livelihoods and rights of many people, we remain engaged in seeking the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and in further promoting sustainable forest management globally. We will:

a) support the development of positive incentives in particular for developing countries to promote emission reductions through actions to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Considering that these measures will provide tangible results only in the medium term, it is also crucial to undertake early action initiatives to urgently tackle drivers of deforestation, and we will cooperate to identify innovative instruments in this respect, including through initiatives such as UN programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and the Informal Working Group on Interim Finance for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (IWG-IFR);..."

Scope: 
International

“78...We will:...

...b) continue to support efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, as set out in the Bali Action Plan. We continue to support REDD and will consider the inclusion of financial mechanisms within the future global agreement on climate change;

...c) encourage cooperation and the use of synergies between the UNFCCC and other international forest-related processes, and promote national strategies developed in collaboration with relevant players, including governments, indigenous peoples and local communities, civil society groups and the private sector;

d) enhance cooperation with partner countries to combat illegal logging and trade in illegally-harvested timber, in accordance with our obligations under international agreements and building on our previous commitments and actions, including those under the Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) processes. We reaffirm our intention to promote transparent timber markets and trade in legal and sustainably produced timber. In that regard, we will follow up, where appropriate, with concrete actions on the preliminary list of options presented in 2008 by the G8 Forest Experts Report on Illegal Logging;

e) reinforce international cooperation and information sharing for sustainable forest management, including use of forest resources, prevention and management of forest fires and monitoring of pests and diseases.”
 

Scope: 
International

“80. Recognising the intrinsic value of biodiversity and its essential contribution to economic and social well-being and the fundamental role of ecosystem services in poverty reduction, in the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), we:

a) will reinforce our efforts to meet the 2010 Biodiversity Target to significantly reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level;

81. ...In order to reduce the negative effects related to ecosystem degradation, including water and food scarcity and on carbon sinks and to strengthen the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, we will:

a) strive to ensure that sustainable development policies take into account the benefits of ecosystem goods and services, integrating the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity into all relevant sectors;

b) work towards the completion of the negotiation on the international regime on access to and benefit sharing of genetic resources by 2010;

c) strengthen and broaden international, regional, national and local activities to conserve biodiversity;

d) continue to support the Potsdam Initiative launched in 2007 and in particular the ongoing global initiative, “The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity”;

e) further encourage the engagement of civil society, the business community and other relevant stakeholders for biodiversity conservation activities. “
 

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Gender - Gender and economic opportunity

“110...We will promote gender equality as a key issue for aid effectiveness and to reduce poverty. We will frame our initiatives within partnerships involving all relevant stakeholders at global, regional and national level. In line with the AAA, where possible we will build upon existing partnerships and ensure that these are effective and inclusive, promote better coordination and division of labour, reduce fragmentation of aid, be aligned to partner countries’ priorities and strengthen these countries’ systems, with particular attention to specific objectives and instruments for fragile and post-conflict environments.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Health - General health and health funding

“121. In the current global financial crisis we reaffirm our commitment to address the health needs of the most vulnerable, especially women and children. ...We reaffirm our commitment to address the scarcity of health workers in developing countries, especially in Africa and we note the 2008 Kampala Declaration and the Agenda for Global Actions launched by the Global Health Workforce Alliance...We will also begin to address substantial gaps in knowledge about how to manage, organize and deliver health care in Sub-Saharan Africa through a variety of strategies, including by developing networks of researchers and by working with our African partners to establish a consortium of interdisciplinary centres of health innovation. As an enabling first step in developing the consortium, we will convene a planning meeting in late 2009 with African partners to establish a roadmap. We will work with partner countries and international institutions to promote well-functioning information systems...”

Scope: 
Africa

“125. We reaffirm our existing commitments, including the US$ 60 billion investment to fight infectious diseases and strengthen health system by 2012. Building on the decisions taken at St. Petersburg, Heiligendamm and Toyako, we have established a follow-up mechanism to monitor the progress of health commitments. We welcome the report submitted by our experts, highlighting progress and proposing further actions, and we commit to further improvements.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Health - Maternal health, reproductive health and infant mortality

“122. ...We will accelerate progress on combating child mortality, including through intensifying support for immunization and micronutrient supplementation, and on maternal health, including through sexual and reproductive health care and services and voluntary family planning... ...We will implement further efforts towards universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010, with particular focus on prevention and integration of services for HIV/TB. We will combine this with actions to: combat TB and Malaria; address the spread of Neglected Tropical Diseases and work towards completing the task of polio eradication; improve monitoring of emerging infectious diseases...”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Health - HIV/AIDS

“123. ... We aim at addressing the key determinants of health through mutually reinforcing policies across sectors such as poverty reduction, food and nutrition, water supply and sanitation, education, gender equality, employment, housing, justice, environment and science and technology. We commit to counter any form of stigma, discrimination and human rights violation and to promote the rights of persons with disabilities and the elimination of travel restrictions on people living with HIV/AIDS.”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Education - Education capacity

 “127. We remain committed to the goals of Education for All (EFA) and we welcome the progress made so far, but we recognize that decisive action is still needed...

128. We reiterate our support to the Education for All - Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) as a good practice for aid effectiveness. We will continue to facilitate the implementation, within 2009, of the EFA/FTI’s reform process with specific attention on the most effective governance structures and financing mechanisms...We, along with other donors, are committed to a unified approach, mobilizing predictable bilateral and multilateral resources in order to fulfil the financial shortfall estimated by the FTI at $1.2 billion over the coming 18 months, and to close gaps in education data, policy and capacity to accelerate action on EFA...” 

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Climate Change - Climate change technology and research

“73. The development and deployment of technologies and know-how in developed and developing countries will play a crucial role both in mitigation and adaptation to climate change and in moving towards low-carbon growth models. ... Building on our existing commitments to urgently advance the development and deployment of clean energy technologies, consistent with existing international obligations, we will...

d) ...work with developing countries to build capacity to support the deployment, diffusion, demonstration and transfer of climate friendly technologies."

Scope: 
International

“91. We are aware that despite effective diversification strategies, fossil fuels will continue to be an essential component of the energy mix in many countries, at least in the medium term. The development and deployment of innovative technologies such as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is therefore expected to contribute substantially to reducing emissions. Reaffirming the commitment made in Toyako for the launch of 20 large-scale Carbon Capture and Storage demonstration projects globally by 2010, we will...

b) encourage greater involvement of developing countries by promoting collaboration and knowledge diffusion, also through IEA regional roundtables”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Climate Change - Mitigation and low carbon growth

“64. We reconfirm our strong commitment to the UNFCCC negotiations and to the successful conclusion of a global, wide-ranging and ambitious post-2012 agreement in Copenhagen, involving all countries, consistent with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”

Scope: 
International

“69. We support flexible, economically sound market-based approaches to emission reductions. In particular, cap & trade schemes, where implemented, have proved largely successful and improved understanding of the potential advantages, critical issues and indicators. The use of market mechanisms, including those under the Kyoto Protocol, provides opportunities to reduce emissions cost-effectively, while facilitating technology diffusion, low-carbon development and the involvement of emerging and developing countries. With a view to building on these experiences and to facilitate action under the global post 2012 agreement, we commit to...

b) ...cooperate among us and with other countries to expand carbon markets to the extent possible and reduce costs and align emission allowance trading schemes, with a view to developing transparent carbon markets which would expand to involve emerging and developing countries, including on a sectoral basis;

c) support the development, reform and enhancement of project, programmatic and policy-based offset mechanisms, including the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in order to encourage their use, enhance their effectiveness and environmental integrity, and facilitate actions from developing countries under the global, post-2012 agreement...”

Scope: 
International

Commitments in: Climate Change - Adaptation

“76. Recognising that even implementing ambitious mitigation steps will not avoid further climate impacts, we will define and implement effective adaptation and capacity building policies. We are deeply concerned about the consequences of climate change on development, ecosystem services, water and food security, agricultural output, forests, health and sanitation, particularly for LDCs and SIDS, but also for the poor and most vulnerable in all countries...We will, in addition:

a) mainstream effective adaptation strategies and risk assessments into international cooperation programmes and assist developing States in integrating adaptation efforts into national development plans and policies;

b) significantly increase consideration of the role of ecosystems in adaptation measures, with a view to improving resilience of ecosystems, reducing vulnerability and underpinning new and sustainable growth models;

c) strengthen knowledge networks for adaptation and support for research and capacity building related to vulnerability and impact assessments as well as planning and implementation of adaptation measures;

d) address the need for financing for adaptation through appropriate bilateral and multilateral mechanisms.”
 

Scope: 
International