EU 2005 EU Strategy For Africa: Towards a Euro-African pact to accelerate Africa’s Development, Brussels, Belgium, 12 October 2005

Sectors : Employment and Training, Quality of aid, Aid volume, Forced displacement, Health systems, medicines and regulation, Labour migration, International partnerships and support for Pan-African institutions, Energy, ICT, Regional cooperation and integration, Infrastructure General, Transport, Water and Sanitation, Conflict resources, Small and Light Weapons, Environmental degradation and natural resource management, Peace-building and peacekeeping, Political governance, Humanitarian assistance, Human Rights, Women's rights, Institutional development, Regional trade, International trade: market access, subsidies and aid for trade, Investment, Agricultural investment and production, Agricultural and biotechnology, Disaster risk reduction and reconstruction, Climate change - general, Gender and political agency, Gender and social development, General health and health funding, Higher education, Post-primary education, Primary and basic education
Organisation : EU
Date made: 
2005
Level: 
Heads Of State

Commitments in: Private Sector development and financial services for the poor - Employment and Training

“3.1.3.1. Put people at the centre of development

...Specific action should include:

...• Stimulate employment policies and decent work. Action to promote decent work for all in line with the ILO agenda is essential and should cover measures and initiatives on employment, social protection, rights at work, including core labour standards (CLSs), social dialogue and gender equality...The EU should, in particular, contribute to strengthening labour market institutions and players, including employers’ and workers’ organisations and social dialogue between them. In this context, core labour standards should be further promoted, as essential prerequisites for the effective functioning of the labour market.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Financing for Development - Quality of aid

“...the EU should now implement an Action Plan on Aid Effectiveness and apply it in Sub-Saharan Africa as a priority. This Action Plan will pave the way for specific proposals for the creation of an operational and interactive EU donor atlas, agreement on individual country roadmaps for harmonisation, the adoption of joint programming documents and the development of common procedures. In addition, the EU should foster more general and sectoral budget support. This will not only make aid delivery more transparent, predictable and result-oriented but will also enhance the EU’s collective political leverage. Overall, it will be important to demonstrate that the substantial increases in aid flows have served their purpose in helping recipient countries in their attainment of the MDGs.”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.3. A more effective EU approach

...Therefore the EU should adopt an Action Plan on Aid Effectiveness and apply it to Sub-Saharan Africa as a priority. The Plan will be presented in 2006 and should build on four initiatives, based on the decisions taken by the GAERC (November 2004) to be monitored following a set timetable:

• Make the EU donor atlas an operational tool for monitoring effectiveness. Going beyond the successful mapping of development assistance, the donor atlas should in the future become an operational tool for the annual monitoring of the EU’s aid effectiveness commitments and provide a mechanism that guides the EU’s future action.

• Establish national roadmaps for coordination. Through the establishment of a roadmap supporting local harmonisation processes in each African country, the EU will drastically reduce the transaction costs and help to build up its partners’ capacity and responsibilities.

• Adopt joint programming documents. Today each individual EU Member State and the European Commission conclude separate programming documents with each recipient country. The adoption by the EU as a whole of a Joint Framework for multi-annual Programming (JFP) will therefore considerably improve complementarity and effectiveness within the EU. Based on previous experience, the Commission should propose a common format in the first half of 2006.

• Develop common procedures. The EU must simplify existing cumbersome procedures, notably through the establishment of a Joint Format for Financial Agreements (JFA). Based on experience gained in countries such as Zambia or Mozambique, the JFA implies a single dialogue, disbursement and support mechanism for all donors in each country. Cofinancing and pooling of funds should be systematically pursued.

The EU should also improve the quality of its aid by making its aid delivery more transparent, predictable and result-oriented. To achieve these goals and to enhance its collective leverage, the EU should foster more general and sectoral budget support...It is therefore recommended that: (i) EU positions are made more visible and coordinated within the IMF decision-making process; and (ii) innovative approaches are envisaged vis-à-vis fragile states or countries in transition, which up until now have often been excluded from budget support. However, in these situations rather than pursuing short-term budgetary considerations the EU should instead be guided by a long-term strategic approach...”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Financing for Development - Aid volume

“The European Council agreed, on the basis of a Commission proposal, to double aid between 2004 and 2010, and allocate half of it to Africa. By making this commitment, the EU is still on track to reach the UN target of allocating 0.7% of its GNI to development aid by 2015. Compared to what is expected in 2006, this commitment should result in an estimated additional €20 billion in ODA per year by 2010 and an additional annual €46 billion per year by 2015. The EU also agreed to allocate at least 50% of this agreed increase to Africa.”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.2. Increase EU financing for Africa

....A more ambitious Community financial framework. In order to increase Europe’s collective leverage, the Community financing should be increased substantially. Approximately €4 billion shall be available on an annual basis for Sub-Saharan Africa under the post-9th European Development Fund (EDF) multi-annual financial framework for the ACP and other thematic and horizontal budget lines. In the framework of the conclusion of the negotiations on revision of the Cotonou Agreement, on 21 February 2005 the Council committed itself to “maintain its aid effort to the ACP countries at least at the level of the 9th EDF, not including balances; to this should be added the effects of inflation, growth within the European Union, and enlargement to take in 10 new Member States in 2004, based on Community estimates.” This EU Strategy for Africa should constitute the reference framework for the programmes and action under the post-9th EDF. In order to maximise their impact these funds should be allocated through national regional and intra-ACP indicative programmes on the basis of the principles of differentiation, subsidiarity and institutional sustainability. For northern Africa, the European Neighbourhood Policy in general and the implementation of the Action Plans in particular should be supported, from 2007 onwards, by a new dedicated financial instrument, the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which will replace MEDA and other instruments currently operating in neighbouring countries. In line with the strategy outlined in this document, the new financial framework should foster regional, inter-regional and pan-African cooperation and integration. Support for cooperation between north African and Sub-Saharan countries, subject to different cooperation agreements with the EC, should be facilitated. The EU should also ensure that north African countries will be able to participate in inter-regional and pan-African initiatives financed from the EDF. The ENPI should also include provisions for supporting cooperation between the countries of northern Africa and their Sub-Saharan neighbours on issues of common concern, including migration.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Migration - Labour migration

“3.1.3.1. Put people at the centre of development

...Specific action should include:

• Turn migration into a positive force in the development process...Particular attention should be paid to the human resources crisis in Africa’s health-care sector. At the same time, the EU should pay greater attention to intra-African forced migration and refugee flows, as vectors for economic and political destabilisation and will support African countries in their efforts to deal with these flows...”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Development partnerships - International partnerships and support for Pan-African institutions

“ANNEX

...EU policies and action should therefore be tailored to the potential of each level. At country level, the EU should for Northern Africa, support national reform strategies and the implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy Action Plans, while for Sub-Saharan African the EU should continue to centre support on the implementation of national development policies and poverty reduction strategies (PRSPs). At regional level, the EU should support (sub-) regional integration and development strategies and programmes of different Regional Economic Communities (RECs). For Sub-Saharan Africa this will entail the creation of regional integrated markets following the conclusion of EPA negotiations. This objective should extend to tangible support for coordinated supply-side and other reforms at national level, so as to seamlessly bind national development policies with regional integration objectives. The EU should support African efforts to rationalise the current regional integration schemes and institutions in accordance with the regional frameworks governing the EPAs. At continental level, finally, the EU should support the continental institutions and strategies of the AU and NEPAD providing answers to current Africa-wide challenges. This will require boosting the capacity of these supranational institutions to make them stronger, more effective and more credible in the eyes of African countries and citizens. To that end, the EU should enhance its support to the AU Commission, to the Pan-African Parliament, and other pan-African institutions. At the same time, the EU should develop synergies and complementary features between the different agreements to support these Africa-wide strategies more effectively.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Development partnerships - Regional cooperation and integration

“3.1.2.2. Interconnect Africa

...The Commission therefore proposes to establish an EU-Africa Partnership for Infrastructure to support and initiate programmes (Trans-African Networks) that facilitate interconnectivity at continental level for the promotion of regional integration.

...Concretely, the EU will initially set up a task force that combines EC and EIB resources and expertise open to Member States and their development financial institutions. This approach will enable an early start up of the Partnership and provides flexibility for designing an appropriate institutional structure that seeks efficient implementation and successful outcomes. This EU task force will facilitate coordination, the mobilisation of the substantial funds necessary to interconnect Africa and through participation in other international initiatives enhance its effectiveness. In the framework of this Partnership, specific action should include:

In general:

• Identify and address missing links. Missing links in trans-African and regional networks must be identified and prioritised to set up ‘Trans-African Networks labelled’ programmes...

• Harmonise transport policies through support to the Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Programme (SSATP) that facilitates the harmonisation of sustainable transport policies between regions and efficient operations along regional and trans-African corridors...The EU should furthermore support development and modernisation of access to ports and port infrastructure, emphasising efficient and non-discriminatory licensing procedures for ports facilities in order to promote sea going external trade. In addition, the EU should support the reform of the African aviation sector with a view to share with the African regional organisations the experience of the EC internal market and consolidate the exchange of regulatory and operational know-how, technology transfer and technical assistance, in particular in the area of safety, security and air traffic management. On the regulatory side, this new cooperation framework will have to bring existing bilateral air service agreements into legal conformity, notably through the signature of so-called “Horizontal Agreements” with the European Community.

• Develop integrated water management through support to the African Ministerial Council on Water (AMCOW) and to regional bodies, such as river basin organisations, for the improvement of integrated water management in transboundary river basins. Through the EU Water Initiative and the associated Water Facility, the EU has already launched support for the Nile Basin Initiative and in five river basins (Kagera, Niger, Volta, Lake Chad and Orange-Senqu). For North Africa, building on a long established co-operation tradition, the focus will be on developing sub-regional energy projects to promote the Euro- Mediterranean Energy Market.

• Develop cross-border and regional energy infrastructure through support to the new Forum of Energy Ministers in Africa (FEMA) and to regional institutions and stakeholders for developing cross-border and regional energy infrastructure, including the enhanced exploitation of renewable and other sustainable local energy sources and services. This support should be provided in the framework of the EU Energy Initiative and the associated Energy Facility.

• Bridge the digital divide in Africa in the framework of the follow-up to the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). This should include supporting the development of advanced and low-cost technologies for electronic communications and the development of regulatory frameworks to create a sound business environment for innovation, growth and social inclusion...The successful model used in north Africa to link these networks with each other and to GÉANT in Europe should be extended to the Sub- Saharan countries. The overall objective of these measures should be to bridge the digital divide at all levels – within countries, between countries and regions as well as between Africa and the rest of the world.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Peace and security - Conflict resources

“3.1.1.1. Foster peace and security

The EU will therefore step up its efforts to promote peace and security at all stages of the conflict cycle. Specific action should include:

...• Tackle conflict resources. Access to and exploitation of valuable or scarce natural resources can be important contributing factors to the outbreak or continuation of conflicts. The EU should continue to promote effective implementation of the ‘Kimberley Process Certification Scheme’ for diamonds and should work with African partners to improve the control and traceability of other potential conflict resources. It should also support Africa Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (AFLEG) through the implementation of the EU Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT). This Action Plan sets out a series of measures to tackle illegal logging, addressing good governance in developing countries while enhancing the opportunities of the EU’s internal market.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Peace and security - Small and Light Weapons

“3.1.1.1. Foster peace and security

The EU will therefore step up its efforts to promote peace and security at all stages of the conflict cycle. Specific action should include:

...• Disarm to break the conflict cycle. First, efforts to achieve coherent regional and national strategies for disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration and reinsertion (DDRR) should be supported in order to contribute to the reintegration of ex-combatants – including child soldiers – and stabilisation of post-conflict situations...” “...The EU should also promote an integrated approach to address the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW) as well as landmines (see Box 1). To this end, the Commission recently launched two wide-ranging pilot projects supported by the European Parliament. On the basis of these and other experience, the EU should define a collective, comprehensive and cross-cutting EU approach to address the diverse features of the problem, building on both first pillar and CSFP/ESDP instruments.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Peace and security - Peace-building and peacekeeping

“...Peace and security are therefore the first essential prerequisites for sustainable development. The EU should step up its efforts to promote peace and security at all stages of the conflict cycle, from conflict prevention, via conflict management to conflict resolution and post-conflict reconstruction...The EU should also continue to promote the sound management of natural resources in Africa, thus tackling the environmental root causes of many conflicts.”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.1.1.1. Foster peace and security

The EU will therefore step up its efforts to promote peace and security at all stages of the conflict cycle. Specific action should include:

• Develop a comprehensive approach to conflict prevention, which seeks to integrate policies and action in the fields of security, development and democratic governance. The EU should increasingly use regional and national development strategies and instruments to address structural causes of conflict. The EU will maintain its support to addressing the root-causes of violent conflict, including poverty, degradation, exploitation and unequal distribution and access to land and natural resources, weak governance, human rights abuses and gender inequality. It will also promote dialogue, participation and reconciliation with a view to prevent possible outbreaks of violence. Especially in fragile states a culture of conflict prevention needs to be developed and fostered. A crucial role could be played by national and regional Early Warning Systems, and the EU should step up its assistance to support partner countries' and regional organizations' efforts to strengthen governance/institutional capacity building to enable them to engage effectively in prevention approach...

• Cooperate in addressing common security threats, including non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and combating terrorism...

• Support African peace-support operations by continuing to provide support to African led, -owned and –implemented peace-support operations, notably through the strengthening and replenishment of the Peace Facility for Africa. Many lessons can be learned from the experience with the Peace Facility. The development-related objectives of the Facility have been successfully converted into practical action and that today the Facility constitutes the financial foundation of Africa’s peace and security architecture, underpinning the leadership of the AU and the sub-regional organisations. It is time now, building on this experience, to set up a more comprehensive EU approach complementing these Community instruments through CFSP/ESDP approaches. A common EU policy with regard to the different conflicts in Africa is therefore needed. The EU should also pursue a common policy responding to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan’s call for establishing an interlocking system of peacekeeping capacities, exploring the synergies between the different organisations involved and developing organisational capacities of African institutions, in particular through a proposed ten-year capacity building plan for the AU.”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.1.1.1. Foster peace and security

The EU will therefore step up its efforts to promote peace and security at all stages of the conflict cycle. Specific action should include:

...• Sustain peace in post-conflict situations by developing a more coherent and smooth transition between short-term (humanitarian assistance) and long-term (development) strategies in post-conflict situations...The EU should promote an integrated and comprehensive political dialogue and policy mix supported by appropriate instruments while strengthening implementation of its linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) efforts. These transition strategies should also integrate socially and environmentally durable solutions for refugees and other vulnerable groups. The EU should also develop a strategy and capacity to foster security sector reform (SSR) in Africa, which will take into account the related institutions and capacity building programmes of the EC and Member States, whilst identifying the scope of action to be pursued within the European security and defence policy (ESDP) framework. Finally, the EU welcomes the establishment of a UN Peace-building Commission."

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Governance - Human Rights

“...The EU should therefore continue to promote transparency and effective exchange of information between authorities in order to fight corruption, money laundering and terrorism. The EU should also continue to promote the human rights and equal opportunities protect the vulnerable groups, especially women. Concretely, the EU should support the creation of an EU-Africa Forum on human rights to encourage the sharing of expertise and resources. In the countries covered by the Euro- Mediterranean Partnership and the European Neighbourhood Policy, progress towards good governance will be encouraged through the establishment of a substantial Governance Facility...”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.1.1.2. Support legitimate and effective governance

...In order to address the twin problems of weak and ineffective governance, the EU will support legitimate and effective governance as a second central prerequisite for development and, thus, for attaining the MDGs. Specific action should include:

...• Reinforce respect for human rights and democracy. To encourage further sharing of expertise and resources, an EU-Africa Forum on human rights should be set up. This Forum will be underpinned by a network of human rights experts in Africa and Europe, with the goal of addressing substantive and institutional human rights issues in the context of a sustained dialogue...Beyond this, the EU will make every possible effort for human rights issues to be discussed and addressed within the different forms of dialogue and international cooperation (such as in the UN) and mainstreamed into development cooperation. The EU should also place particular emphasis on the promotion, respect and protection of children’s rights and basic needs, as well as the promotion, respect and protection of women's rights and gender equality...”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Governance - Political governance

“3.1.1.2. Support legitimate and effective governance

...In order to address the twin problems of weak and ineffective governance, the EU will support legitimate and effective governance as a second central prerequisite for development and, thus, for attaining the MDGs. Specific action should include:

• Reform of the State (1): Build effective and credible central institutions. The construction of stronger central institutions is a shared objective at all levels of governance, including the regional and pan-African layers (see above on subsidiarity). Strengthening the capacity of African countries will enhance respect for human rights, freedoms of citizens, good governance and effectiveness of the State and deserves the EU’s full support...

...• Launch a Governance Initiative. The EU should back African-owned efforts to improve governance. The EU must encourage and support African countries systematically to develop good governance plans within their national PRSP. One powerful tool to boost efforts further is, in particular, the voluntary African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) and the reforms that it will trigger. To this end, the Commission should launch a Governance Initiative that will encourage participation in the APRM process and provide further support to African countries for the implementation of their APRM-driven reforms. This support should be additional to, and fully in line with, poverty reduction strategy papers and should respect African ownership both of the process and of the reforms pursued.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Infrastructure General

“Limited access to transport and communication services, energy, water and sanitation also constrains economic growth. The EU should therefore establish a Partnership for Infrastructure to support and initiate programmes that facilitate interconnectivity at continental level to promote regional integration. In the framework of this Partnership, the EU should support Africa’s efforts to identify and address missing links, harmonise transport policies, develop integrated water management, develop cross-border and regional energy infrastructure and promote efforts to bridge the digital divide at all levels, including through initiatives to develop sustainable low-cost electronic communications.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Water and Sanitation

“3.1.3.1. Put people at the centre of development

...Specific action should include:

...• Expand access to water supply, sanitation, energy and ICTs. The Africa-EU Partnership on water affairs and sanitation, launched at the WSSD in the context of the EU Water Initiative, will be the framework for EU efforts to make more sustainable use of available and finite water resources, to meet basic water and sanitation needs and contribute to improving water resources management at local, river basin, national and transboundary levels...The EU Energy Initiative, also launched at the WSSD, will continue to be a framework for EU efforts to increase access to affordable energy services that facilitate economic and social development. The associated Energy Facility will leverage resources for mobilising additional investment in delivery of affordable, reliable and sustainable energy services to the poor, notably from renewable energy resources, as well as for the development of clean and energy efficient technologies for gas and oil production. Projects in the energy sector should also systematically include energy efficiency objectives. The EC COOPENER programme also focuses support on energy for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, providing co-financing to projects aiming at creating the institutional conditions for improved access to energy in Sub-Saharan Africa.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Trade - Regional trade

“3.1.2.1. Boost economic growth

...In order to ensure that globalisation can become a positive force for Africa’s development, EU action should stimulate sufficiently rapid, broad-based and sustainable economic growth in order to contribute to an effective reduction of poverty. Specific action should include:

...• Creation of integrated regional markets (South-South trade). Creating integrated regional markets is at the heart of the concept of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) that the EU is currently negotiating with four Sub-Saharan regions of Africa. These innovative agreements are being designed with development as the major objective and benchmark. This process of integration and of fostering trade will continue to be accompanied by substantial and increasing financial support, notably for building trade capacities and for the implementation of supply side reforms. Already the main donor in this area, the EU should step up its trade related assistance to Africa...The EU should assist Africa in this process so to enable African governments to effectively use trade as a policy tool to reduce poverty.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Trade - International trade: market access, subsidies and aid for trade

“The EU should continue to help African countries to implement macroeconomic and structural policies that encourage private investment and stimulate pro-poor growth. Another key vector for economic growth and regional integration is the development of South-South, North-South and multilateral trade...The EU should also support African countries in the promotion of a stable, efficient and harmonised regulatory framework encouraging private business initiatives, including in the area of electronic communications and services. In this context, the EU should promote a Euro-African Business Forum bringing together entrepreneurs and public and private investors from both Europe and Africa.”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.1.2.1. Boost economic growth

...In order to ensure that globalisation can become a positive force for Africa’s development, EU action should stimulate sufficiently rapid, broad-based and sustainable economic growth in order to contribute to an effective reduction of poverty. Specific action should include:

...• Increased market access and trade (North-South trade). ... In the EPA negotiations, the EU should provide effectively improved market access and simplify, harmonise and render rules of origin more development friendly. It should also continue to encourage other major developed or developing countries to follow its example. Moreover, it should assist African countries in their efforts in bringing its products to EU and world markets, to comply with rules and standards, notably in the sanitary and phytosanitary areas, and to negotiate preferential market access for goods and services...In order to ensure Africa’s gradual integration into the multilateral trading system, the EU will continue to assist Africa in negotiating and taking advantage of the new opportunities arising from multilateral trade liberalisation while strengthening the social dimension of globalisation and promoting productive employment and decent work opportunities. To reduce the impact of price shocks on commodity dependant countries, the EC should introduce innovative insurance instruments to complement its existing FLEX mechanism.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Agriculture - Agricultural investment and production

“...The EU should target specific support on increasing the competitiveness and productivity of African agriculture...”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.1.2.1. Boost economic growth

...Macroeconomic stability, the creation of regional markets and an appropriate private investment climate are preconditions for sustained growth. However, while such a pro-growth framework is crucial for sustainable economic development, it needs to be accompanied by appropriate measures to boost and diversify production and to establish and upgrade the necessary infrastructure and networks. Specific action should include:

• Boost agriculture and ensure food security. In addition to the policies sustaining the rural sector, the EU should target specific support on increasing the competitiveness and productivity of African agriculture through: (i) policies and programmes to improve the functioning of national and regional input and output markets, including through rural infrastructure and to promote organic farming and fair trade; (ii) the management of shocks, in particular through novel insurance instruments; and (iii) the strengthening of pro-poor, demand-driven agricultural research and extension, in particular by promoting research collaboration between the European and African research communities, at the level of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and by supporting regional research coordination mechanisms...”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Environment - Environmental degradation and natural resource management

“3.1.3.2. Build an environmentally sustainable future

...The EU will therefore assist Africa to protect its environment, one of its most valuable assets.

Specific action should include:

• Manage environmental diversity: forestry, fisheries and water. First, in order to safeguard the jobs, rural livelihoods, environmental goods and services that forests provide, the EU should also support the sustainable management of forest resources. This should take the form of promotion of community-based forest management and improved governance for forest resources, as set out in the 1999 Communication on Forests and Development and the EU Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT). Second, the incorporation of clear mechanisms to ensure the sustainable use of fish stocks in national and regional policies will enhance the fight against illegal fishing, protect the marine and coastal environment and mitigate the harmful effects of fishing activities. Third, the EU should enhance its efforts, launched with the African-European Union Strategic Partnership on Water Affairs and Sanitation (Johannesburg, 2002), to address integrated water management. Through twinning partnerships that bring together African and EU scientists, an Africa Observatory for Sustainable Development should be established to generate relevant information on the environment conditions and the distribution of resources. Similarly, dedicated information systems should be set up to detect and analyse early warning signs of potential crisis situations...

• Stop desertification and improve sustainable land management (SLM). Operational partnerships anchored in domestic policies will ensure appropriate links between land degradation and poverty eradication, food security, sound water management, agriculture and rural development priorities. Successful participatory local experience and knowledge-sharing between stakeholders will be scaled up to boost implementation. The EU should also promote the integration of UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) National Action Plans (NAPs) into the national development strategies of African partners.

• Conserve biodiversity by supporting African regional, sub-regional and domestic efforts to implement the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and CITES. This should, in particular, cover measures relating to the WSSD targets for significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, the establishment of representative and well-managed protected areas systems by 2012, combating overexploitation and illegal trade in wildlife and its products. Support should also be provided for the African Biodiversity Network, to further work on alien invasive species, to regional preparatory processes for upcoming meetings under the CBD and to achieving a more effective implementation of domestic biosafety frameworks. The protection of the transborder biosphere in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger is a good example of effective regional cooperation relating to the conservation and management of natural resources.

• Counter the effects of climate change, including through the implementation of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) for African LDCs. This should be done within the framework of the recently adopted Action Plan accompanying the EU Strategy on Climate Change and Development.

• Support the sound management of chemicals, by building capacity to manage risk, by protecting human health and environment and by implementing the international chemicals conventions, agreements and projects, such as the African stockpile programme, to destroy obsolete pesticides.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Gender - Gender and social development

“3.1.1.2. Support legitimate and effective governance

...In order to address the twin problems of weak and ineffective governance, the EU will support legitimate and effective governance as a second central prerequisite for development and, thus, for attaining the MDGs. Specific action should include:

...• Promote gender equality. The EU should ensure that gender equality is fully taken into account in all partnerships and in national development strategies including in poverty reduction strategies...The EU should give priority to the elimination of illiteracy especially among girls and the promotion of their equal access to education, to investment in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) in order to combat HIV/AIDS pandemic, to the reduction of maternal and child mortality, and to the participation of women in conflict prevention, peace building and reconstruction.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Health - General health and health funding

“3.1.3.1. Put people at the centre of development

...Specific action should include:

...• Deliver decent health care....In response to the Council’s request, the Commission should, together with the Member States, develop a roadmap on possible joint action based on the European Programme for Action to confront HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The EU should, in this context, promote synergies and provide a coherent and coordinated response to the three diseases across relevant policy areas. In this sense, the Commission intends to put forward a Communication on combating HIV/AIDS within the European Union and the Neighbouring countries later this year..."

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Education - Primary and basic education

“...The EU should therefore help to make basic social services available for the poorest people in Africa (MDGs 1-6), contributing to the establishment of a social safety net for the most vulnerable. Beyond primary education, the EU should support education, research and access to knowledge and transfer of know-how as a lifelong process: from secondary and higher to vocational education. Building on the success of and experience from the Erasmus programme, the EU should support the creation of a Nyerere programme for student exchanges across Africa. The EU should also step up its action to deliver decent health care through the strengthening of national health systems, capacity building and health-related research and the replenishment of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria...”

Scope: 
Africa

“3.1.3.1. Put people at the centre of development

...Specific action should include:

• Investing in minds. To stimulate a coherent and strategic approach, the EU should increasingly support primary education through sectoral budget support. At the same time, the EU should support education, access to knowledge and transfer of know-how as a lifelong process going beyond primary education: from secondary and higher to vocational education. Emphasis should also be put on cooperation with Africa in higher education to build high-quality tertiary capacity through networking, mobility of students and scholars, and institutional support and innovation, including the use of ICTs, as is done in Northern Africa countries through the EC’s TEMPUS programme, and the establishment of a communications infrastructure for the research and development sector. In addition, building on the success of and experience from the Erasmus programme, the EU should support the creation of a Nyerere programme for student exchanges across Africa. In addition, a pilot scheme for student and teachers exchanges between Africa and Europe could be examined. This programme and scheme should also contribute to the development of Euro-African networks of selected universities and centres of excellence...”

Scope: 
Africa