The Africa-EU Partnership - A Joint EU Strategy, Lisbon, Portugal, 9 December 2007

Sectors : Employment and Training, Gender and economic opportunity, Financial Institutions, markets, services and microfinance, Science, research and technology general, Quality of aid, Aid volume, Debt relief, Labour migration, International partnerships and support for Pan-African institutions, Institutional development, Regional cooperation and integration, Anti-personnel mines, Small and Light Weapons, Peace-building and peacekeeping, International trade: market access, subsidies and aid for trade, Economic governance, corruption and crime, Human Rights, Political governance, Infrastructure General, ICT, Transport, Environmental degradation and natural resource management, Water and Sanitation, Energy, Regional trade, Agricultural and biotechnology, Agricultural investment and production, Climate change - general, Disaster risk reduction and reconstruction, Gender and political agency, Gender and social development, Women's rights, Maternal health, reproductive health and infant mortality, General health and health funding, Health systems, medicines and regulation, Education capacity
Organisation : AU, EU
Date made: 
2007
Level: 
Heads Of State

Commitments in: Private Sector development and financial services for the poor - Employment and Training

“55. Employment issues, notably social protection, the shortage of employment opportunities and the promotion of decent work in Africa, will be jointly addressed, with priority being given to creating productive jobs in the formal economy, improving poor living and working conditions in line with the UN decent work agenda and integrating the informal economy into the formal. Investments in private sector development will be promoted, looking in particular to youth and women. The service sector will be further developed as this is where women and youth are mostly involved. Africa and the EU will make technology work for employment, and will ensure that infrastructure works to create jobs for Africans, both skilled and unskilled. In addition, attention will be paid to the creation of jobs through micro-finance schemes. As generally disadvantaged groups often benefit substantially from such microfinance schemes they should be actively pursued.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Technology - Science, research and technology general

“59. Furthermore, building upon the 2007 Addis Ababa Declaration on Science Technology and Scientific Research for Development, Africa and the EU shall strengthen their cooperation in these areas. In this context, attention will also be paid to space-based technology, applications and sciences.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Financing for Development - Quality of aid

“114. In order to ensure the effective use of instruments in this innovative Africa-EU cooperation framework and to ensure that they enable partners to meet the goals of the strategic partnership, the complementarity and coherence of these instruments will be properly ensured. To this end, partners will work together towards gradually adapting relevant policies and legal and financial frameworks, as well as relevant cooperation instruments and mechanisms, to the needs and objectives of the partnership. In particular, Africa and the EU will work together to build synergies between existing cooperation agreements in support of the partnership, including through the progressive establishment of a Pan-African financial support programme.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Financing for Development - Aid volume

"50. In order to achieve the objectives set out in the present Joint Strategy, partners should urgently work on more predictable and less volatile aid, focusing on results. The EU therefore reaffirms its determination to reach the targets agreed in the context of the Monterrey consensus in May 2005 to increasing ODA volume to individually achieve 0.51% ODA/GNI for those Member States which joined the EU before 2002; to strive to achieve 0.17% for those Member States which joined the EU after 2002 within their respective budget allocation processes, and collectively achieve 0.56% ODA/GNI by 2010 as an intermediate step towards achieving the UN target of 0.7% by 2015. By 2010, attaining the 0.56% ODA/GNI should correspond to at least an additional €20 billion in ODA per year, and no less than 50% of this increase will benefit the African continent. The EU will respect and implement these commitments and will take appropriate measures to guarantee a timely delivery of aid commitments towards Africa. Partners will also make further efforts to keep debt at sustainable levels and, where debt becomes unsustainable, consider debt cancellation in the framework of existing initiatives and fora.

51. Africa and the EU will also strengthen their cooperation in the implementation of the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness. They will further promote alignment and harmonisation of development aid instruments, increase the use of general and sectoral budget support where circumstances permit, and cooperate closely to implement the EU's commitments to promote complementarity and division of labour.

52. The predictability of development aid should be promoted and the EU will work toward a limitation of conditionalities and further move towards result-oriented aid, with a clear link with MDG indicators and performance. In this context, Africa and the EU will also improve and expand their cooperation in the field of statistics so that policies and decisions are made on the basis of clear evidence.”

Scope: 
Africa

“112. The two sides will work closely together to secure appropriate funding, and to enhance the accessibility of financing sources, to give effect to this Joint Strategy and its successive Action Plans.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Migration - Labour migration

“68. ...Africa and the EU will pursue and implement policies and programmes that address all relevant dimensions of migration, including circular migration. These efforts will aim to promote and better manage legal migration and mobility with a view to supporting the socio-economic development of both countries of origin and countries of destination.

69. Africa and the EU will work to deepen their frank and constructive dialogue in taking forward the implementation of the Declaration adopted in November 2006 at the Tripoli EU-Africa Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development, and ongoing regional processes, which provide a comprehensive agenda for common action in the area of migration and development. Partners will foster the linkages between migration and development, maximise the development impact of remittances, facilitate the involvement of diasporas/migrant communities in development processes, promote the protection of the human rights of migrants, assist and protect asylum seekers and refugees and help countries of origin, transit and destination in Africa build capacity to better manage migration.

70. Africa and the EU will also jointly address the down-sides of migration. This includes jointly combating illegal migration, where cooperation needs to be stepped up, including through cooperation on return and readmission of migrants in the context of the Tripoli Declaration and relevant international agreements, as well as on border control and trafficking in human beings. In this regard, they will work actively to ensure the implementation of the EU-Africa Plan of Action on Trafficking in Human Beings, especially Women and Children. Partners will also work to promote respect for the principles and provisions of the OAU Convention governing the specific aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa and the Geneva Convention on Refugees. Africa and the EU will pay particular attention to brain drain in sensitive sectors like health and education.

71. Both sides commit themselves to ensure that adequate financial resources are made available for the effective implementation of the measures outlined in the Tripoli Declaration.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Development partnerships - International partnerships and support for Pan-African institutions

“32. The AU is putting into place a new pan-African governance architecture and Africa is developing its public and private institutional capacity at all levels – national, regional and continental. In this context, the EU is committed to supporting institutional development, knowledge-sharing and capacity-building. EU support, based on dialogue and incentives, will build on the approach followed to integrate governance in the EDF programming, under the Governance Initiative, under which additional funding is provided to partner countries committed to engaging in reforms. EU support provided will apply the principle of African and local ownership and should follow African agendas.

33. Two particularly promising cases of Africa-owned governance reform programmes and democracy-building efforts are the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) and the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance. To support the APRM process and the implementation of the Charter, and more broadly the pan-African governance architecture, the EU will set up an instrument that takes into account the positive experience with the African Peace Facility and which combines strong African ownership of programme design and implementation with provisions for strategic and political EU-level involvement. Specific support and cooperation are foreseen with the African Court for Human and Peoples’ Rights, the African Commission for Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Pan-African Parliament and the AU Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC).”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Development partnerships - Regional cooperation and integration

“99. One particular challenge is to simplify the institutional framework for regional integration and its articulation with the EPA-related groupings. Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are important for the continental economic and political integration agenda and should continue to be key partners for the EU in Africa. The EU and AU will aim at integrating the RECs and the Sub-Regional Organisations (SROs) in the present institutional architecture and at minimizing overlap between, and conflicting mandates of, the entities concerned. The issue of the configuration of the EPA-related groupings is of particular importance in this context.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Peace and security - Small and Light Weapons

“24. It is also recognised that the illicit proliferation, accumulation and trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and their ammunition, explosive remnants of war and the continued use of anti-personnel landmines, are all major common concerns, as is the issue of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). Africa and the EU will work together on all these issues, and seek to promote, as appropriate, the adoption of multilateral, regional and national instruments, and support the implementation of commitments made, including in the context of UN Security Council Resolutions. This cooperation, which will include matters relating to counter-terrorism, will take place through the exchange of information, law enforcement and institutional capacity building and judicial cooperation.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Peace and security - Peace-building and peacekeeping

“15. At the core of the partnership between Africa and the EU is the need for a strengthened dialogue and institutional cooperation that not only addresses issues of peace and stability in Africa, but also challenges that Europe is facing. The two sides therefore undertake to share information, perspectives and lessons learned, as well as to consult on issues of common concern...

... 17. In view of their expertise, financial and human resources and experience, the EU and its Member States are well placed to provide continued and increased support for the AU in its efforts to – in cooperation with the relevant African regional organisations – operationalise the APSA, including through long-term capacity building for the various structures provided therein, including the Continental Early Warning System, the Panel of the Wise, and the African Standby Force. The AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) will play a key coordinating role in this process. This support will, moreover, aim at facilitating the implementation of other relevant AU instruments such as the Policy on Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development, the Declaration on the Border Program and relevant instruments on disarmament issues. In this context, efforts will be made to ensure coherence with wider international efforts.

...20. The EU is committed to taking steps towards establishing a predictable and sustainable funding mechanism, building on the experience of the APF and EU Member States’ bilateral contributions, as well as on the determination of Africa to raise additional resources from within the continent.

21. At the same time, the EU will back Africa’s efforts to widen the funding base and mobilise additional resources from G8 and other international partners. Africa and the EU will also work together for the establishment, within the context of Chapter VIII of the UN Charter, of a UN mechanism to provide predictable, flexible and sustainable funding for peace keeping operations undertaken by the AU, or under its authority, and with the consent of the UN Security Council.

22. Africa and the EU together commit themselves to support and promote the role of civil society and non-state actors in underpinning a comprehensive approach, emphasising the importance of conflict sensitivity. The two sides also commit themselves to the implementation of UN Security Council Resolutions 1325 on Women in Peace and Security and 1612 on Children in Armed Conflicts.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Governance - Institutional development

“98. ...the EU will continue to assist the AU in its ongoing institutional transformation process and also support the strengthening of the AU's institutional ability to interact with the EU and other international partners.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Governance - Economic governance, corruption and crime

“31. ...Africa and the EU will continue to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trade in cultural goods, and facilitate and support the return of illegally acquired cultural goods to their countries of origin, as set out in the relevant UNESCO and UNIDROIT conventions and other commonly agreed legal instruments. Africa and the EU will also cooperate through the exchange of best practices and lessons learned, by raising public awareness and by providing capacity building in, and technical assistance to, African countries.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Governance - Human Rights

“29. With regard to human rights, Africa and the EU will work together to protect and promote the human rights of all people in Africa and Europe, including through enhanced dialogue between relevant institutions from both continents, such as the European Court of Human Rights of the Council of Europe, the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, the African Committee on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, and African and European national human rights institutions.”

Scope: 
Africa

“56. Africa and the EU will promote children's rights as well as the empowerment of Europe's and Africa's youth. Special efforts will be made to assist youth and children in (post-) conflict situations. All these measures will be supported by predictable long-term financing.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Governance - Political governance

“8. iv. To facilitate and promote a broad-based and wide-ranging people-centred partnership, Africa and the EU will empower non-state actors and create conditions to enable them to play an active role in development, democracy building, conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction processes. Both sides will also promote holistic approaches to development processes, and make this Joint Strategy a permanent platform for information, participation and mobilisation of a broad spectrum of civil society actors in the EU, Africa and beyond. Ongoing dialogue with civil society, the private sector and local stakeholders on issues covered by this Joint Strategy will be a key component to ensure its implementation.”

Scope: 
Africa

“35. The AU and EU will also work together to support democratic elections in accordance with international and regional standards, including the AU standards for elections, through election assistance and electoral observation.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Infrastructure General

“75. The promotion of interconnectivity of African infrastructure at all levels in line with AU/NEPAD priorities will be further advanced. In doing so, the two sides will make use and build upon the framework offered by the 2006 EU-Africa Infrastructure Partnership and Trust Fund as well as the Pan-African Infrastructure Development Fund which set out the strategy for securing interconnectivity across the continent and its different regions and for tackling the issue of delivery of infrastructure services...”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - ICT

“84. Africa and the EU will strengthen their cooperation in building knowledge-based societies and economies...

85. Africa and the EU will strengthen their cooperation and support to bridge the digital divide and promote the development of an inclusive Knowledge Economy, including through the implementation of the outcome of the World Summit on Information Society and relevant AU/NEPAD programmes.

86. More specifically, in the area of ICT, Africa and the EU will aim at bridging the digital divide that limits access to modern telephony and internet services. It will address the harmonisation of policy and regulatory frameworks and investment in broadband infrastructure and support non-commercial e-services.

87. In parallel, similar efforts will be made to address the scientific divide and increase Africa’s research capacities. Inadequate technical capacity of Africa will be upgraded through the establishment of specialised networks in regions and sub-regions, which need to focus on identified priorities so as to underpin economic growth and sustainable development of the African continent. In this respect, Africa and the EU will promote the strengthening of collaborative links between African regional and sub-regional partnerships and European partners, in order to contribute to the sustainability of established centres and networks of excellence.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Transport

“76. As regards transport, Africa and the EU will aim at increasing interconnectivity by investing in and improving infrastructure along the Trans-African road transport corridors and associated regional road and rail networks. Partners shall also focus on enhancing port efficiency, and supporting measures for improving air and maritime safety and security. By supporting the removal of non-physical barriers to the free movement of goods, services and people through more rigorous implementation of regional protocols the Partnership shall also aim at improving transport services.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Water and Sanitation

“79. ...Africa and the EU will therefore work together to further develop the existing EU-Africa Partnership on Water Affairs and Sanitation with the overall objective to meet basic water and sanitation needs and contribute to improved water resource management at local, river basin and catchment, national and trans-boundary level.

80. In addition, Africa and the EU will reinforce their joint efforts to address the challenges of water security and climate change, sustainable access to safe affordable water supplies, hygiene education and sanitation. In this context, Africa and the EU will aim at mobilising increased investments for hydraulic infrastructure in Africa. Furthermore, they will promote the participation of other international partners in the dialogue on the sustainable use of Africa's water resources.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Infrastructure - Energy

“78. As regards energy, the two sides recognise that increased regional and continental interconnectivity is necessary for enhancing the reliability and efficiency of energy systems. Partners will thus aim at improving energy infrastructure, in particular for electricity interconnections, agreements on joint standards and regulation procedures, as well as removing non-physical barriers for exchange of energy across borders.”

Scope: 
Africa

“81. The two sides recognise that the international energy challenges have created a need for Africa and the EU to give an even stronger focus to sustainable energy in their mutual relations. Both sides will therefore aim at strengthening cooperation and solidarity in the sustainable management of their energy resources and at continuing to promote access to energy, energy security and safety, and regional cooperation.

82. To this end, the partners have agreed to establish the Africa-EU Energy Partnership, which will address the joint challenges of energy security and diversification of supply, access to affordable, clean and efficient energy services, new and renewable energy resources and climate change. Partners will furthermore aim at building capacity, at mobilising increased investments for energy infrastructure in Africa, including through the existing EU Energy Facility and other financial instruments, and at including emerging donors in the dialogue on sustainable energy sector development in Africa.

83. Africa and the EU will also explore ways and means to launch a dialogue on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, within the framework of relevant International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) provisions and in line with international safety standards and rules.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Trade - Regional trade

“43. ...Regional Economic Communities will play an essential role as building blocks of the continental integration process. In order to do so, Africa and the EU will work together to make trade rules and regimes more coherent and harmonised. This will require the gradual harmonisation of trade, customs and industrial policies, laws, regulations and procedures. Africa and the EU will cooperate to put in place programmes and mechanisms to develop norms, standards and quality control at regional and pan-African levels with reference to international standards.

...45. Africa-EU cooperation will be underpinned by stronger bilateral development-oriented trading relationships between Africa and the EU: (i) through the implementation of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) with African EPA regions (West Africa, Central Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa and the Southern African grouping), which involve the RECs and other African organisations, and the implementation of the EU-Mediterranean Free Trade Agreement with the countries of North Africa, (ii) by supporting African business in its efforts to meet EU norms and standards and to develop its productive capacity , and (iii) by cooperating in developing export strategies and business-to-business relations. The EPA-agreements, as instruments for development, are to be implemented at the sub-regional level, however, the AU-EU dialogue is relevant to the overall process of regional integration and interface with developing Regional Economic Communities. Both sides stress the need for the EPA process to be supportive of Africa's regional and continental integration agenda on the basis of the Abuja Treaty.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Agriculture - Agricultural investment and production

“73. A new EU-AU partnership on agricultural development will support Africa's agricultural agenda, as set out in the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP). This includes putting emphasis on improved governance of agriculture and supporting capacity-building on the part of African public and private organisations involved in agriculture, particularly at regional and continental levels. It also includes a strong engagement in Africa's agricultural research for development agenda as coordinated by the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA).

74. ...As with agriculture, Africa and the EU will improve policy coherence for development, particularly related to fisheries access arrangements, trade and controlling illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing, notably through the Fisheries Partnership Agreements (FPAs). Africa and the EU will also collaborate in creating an institutional and governance environment to promote conservation and sustainable and optimal use of this valuable resource.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Climate Change - Climate change - general

“67. At the global level, the EU will promote a better geographical distribution of Clean Development Mechanism projects, helping Africa profit from the global carbon market.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Environment - Environmental degradation and natural resource management

“65. Africa-EU cooperation in this field will link positively with economic growth, job creation, social stability, and the building of capacities for adaptation to, and mitigation of, negative effects of climate change. It will address interrelated areas such as food security, sustainable agriculture and land management and will cover a vast number of interrelated areas and issues such as land degradation, desertification, the preservation of biodiversity, bio-safety issues including GMOs, prevention of toxic waste dumping, environmentally sound waste management, sustainable use and management of natural resources including forest, fish stocks and integrated water management, weather observation and early warning systems to improve disaster risk management.

66. Africa and the EU will also work together in the global arena and international fora to effectively respond and adapt to climate change and other global environmental challenges. In this context, the compliance with UN and other international agreements is of key importance and – following the December 2007 Bali conference – Africa and the EU will work together for an ambitious post-2012 climate framework. The EU will furthermore support Africa's capacity building efforts in the sustainable management of natural resources, including on weather observation and early warning systems, as well as helping to tackle illegal logging and associated trade. In this context, Africa and the EU should strengthen existing cooperation mechanisms and programmes relating to the use of space technologies and space-based systems."

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Gender - Gender and political agency

“63. Africa and the EU will also strengthen the inter-institutional fabric of their administrations to mainstream gender equality in all strategies, policies, programmes and actions. They will address the entire range of women’s rights and strengthen their efforts to eliminate illiteracy and to ensure equal access of girls to education, to fight the feminisation of poverty, to promote women in decision-making positions and peace processes, and fight sexual and gender based violence against women and early forced marriage, and work towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C) and other harmful traditional practices, as set out in the Beijing Platform for Action and the AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Health - Maternal health, reproductive health and infant mortality

“62. Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) will be promoted with the aim of achieving universal access to reproductive health by 2015 and to reduce newborn, infant and maternal morbidity and mortality, as set out by the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Maputo Plan of Action, in the context of the Action Plans of this Joint Strategy.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Health - Health systems, medicines and regulation

“60. In the field of health, integrated strategies, including the strengthening of national health systems at all levels, will be promoted by Africa and the EU, based on adequate financing, human resources and commodities. To reinforce health system capacity, partners will also jointly address both the migration of health workers, which is a crisis in some African countries, and the creation or reinforcement of social protection systems. Efforts will be made in line with the Africa Health Strategy, the EU Project on Human Resources for Health, the Abuja commitment (15% financing for health) and the European Programme for Action to Tackle the Shortage of Health Workers in Developing Countries. Efforts to scale up towards universal access to basic health services, HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis Malaria prevention, treatment, care and support by 2010, and cooperation on other pandemics as well as on issues relating to meningitis, will be intensified, with special focus on women, children and adolescents, older and disabled persons as well as members of vulnerable groups.”

Scope: 
Africa

“61. ...Africa and the EU will, in addition, promote further research, particularly for vaccines and new medicines for both major and neglected diseases, and on issues relating to water-borne diseases, as well as on the clinical effectiveness of traditional medicine. Partners will also work towards effective implementation of international health agreements and regulations. Other issues of common interest, such as the abuse of narcotic drugs and the preparedness and responses for emergencies, should be addressed. Special attention will be given to fighting malnutrition in Africa, in line with the Africa Regional Nutrition Strategy.”

Scope: 
Africa

Commitments in: Education - Education capacity

57. ...Africa and the EU will together work towards ensuring long-term predictable funding for national education plans to help ensure quality education for all and that all girls and boys attend and complete school, including through the Education for All Fast Track Initiative and the implementation of the Plan of Action for the Second Decade of Education for Africa. Particular attention will be given to the inclusion of hard-to-reach children and children and youth with disabilities.”

Scope: 
Africa

“58. Training and development of teachers is a priority at all levels of education. Africa and the EU will therefore support the recruitment, retention and training of teaching staff, as well as a general valorisation of the teaching profession. A further priority is to ensure that 'there are jobs behind the education' and an increased responsiveness of training to the needs of the economic sectors. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) and skills development with the involvement of the productive sectors will also be promoted.”

Scope: 
Africa